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Yearbook 2009

Argentina. The ruling Peronist Party (Partido Justicialista) suffered a stinging defeat in the June 27 congressional elections. Although the government and its coalition partners still remained the largest group in Congress, they received only 30 percent of the vote, and the opposition, which won in the country's five most important provinces, gained a strong position.

According to countryaah, Néstor Kirchner, former president and current president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner's husband, took the consequences of the election defeat and resigned as leader of the Peronist Party. The elections to the provincial parishes in Corrientes, Santa Fé and Salta at the end of September also ended with great defeat for the ruling party. In general, the outcome of the elections was interpreted as Néstor Kirchner's chances of being able to stand in the 2011 presidential election become extremely small.

Part of the explanation for the poor election result is the government's handling of agricultural policy in recent years, but also the extremely low turnout, 28 percent, which was partly due to the election occurring during the worst phase of the new influenza H1N1, also called swine flu, in Argentina. As a result of the defeat, President Fernández de Kirchner carried out a major transformation of government; among other things, the finance minister was replaced.

The worst drought in 50 years forced President Fernández de Kirchner in January to announce disaster states in the worst-affected provinces. Affected farmers were given tax exemption for one year.

2009 Argentina

Military regimes

From 1955 and 30 years onwards, Argentina was ruled alternately by pure military governments and formally civilian governments, which ruled at the mercy of the military. There have been contradictions in the Argentine military, and often the conflict seems to have been between those who want the military to guarantee civilian democratic rule and those who believe that the military should govern directly. Often the first group - the "legalists" or "constitutionalists" - has been strongest, but it has been found that when the political cycles have made it necessary to effectively defend the dominant class interests, they have precisely carried out the coup against weak and inefficient civilian governments. The clearest example of this is Ongania's military coup in 1966. Ongania's regime led to a sharpening of the contradictions in Argentine society, both between the dominant and the dominant classes and between the two main directions within the Argentine labor movement. All of the ministers of Ongania were drawn from the extreme Catholic right, and the vast majority had personal financial interests in industrial and commercial enterprises controlled by foreign capital. The economic policy pursued led to increased capital concentration and monopolization, and a large number of major Argentine companies were acquired by foreign capital - a total of 99 companies between 1965 and 1970. The number of bankruptcies among smaller Argentine companies doubled under the rule of Ongania. Extensive devaluations led to price increases, which the government countered by freezing wages. The result was a steady decline in real wages during the period. While infant mortality was around 70 per million when Perón became president in 1946, and was reduced to 57 per thousand in 1955, under Ongania, it rose from 54 per cent in 1966 to 64 per thousand in 1970. In order to carry out an economic policy against the broad strata interests, Ongania's regime had to resort to widespread political repression. All party political activities were banned, and the University was intervened. Over 30% of university teachers were dismissed or volunteered. In 1955, the Peronists were the main enemy of the military, and the Communists were regarded as more or less harmless - at least as long as they were antiperonists. Now it was the fight against communism that was given first priority. Unions with communist or other leftist leadership were disbanded, while Peronist unions were only "supervised". The main reason for this was that these predominantly leaders had a line of cooperation in stark contrast to the class struggle oriented part of the trade union movement. The conflict between these two directions intensified sharply during this period, and the belligerent union opposition strengthened its position through extensive mass mobilizations. The most important of these was «El Cordobazo». A mass uprising in Córdoba in May 1969.general strike in the city with massive support workers and students took action and took over large parts of the city. Military forces were deployed and the rebellion was soon defeated, but "El Corbobazo" still stands as a landmark event in Argentine politics. At the same time that the trade union opposition was strengthened, «radical movements» arose in other parts of society - ia. "Third World Priests" in the Catholic Church under the leadership of left-wing Peronist priests. Around 1970, leftist guerrilla groups were also organized. The most important of these were the left-Peronist movement Montoneros and ERP (People's Revolutionary Army) of Trotskyist origin. A number of mass mobilizations forced the military to reevaluate its policy, and Ongania was ousted in 1970. In 1971, General Agustín Lanusse took over the presidential post and postponed elections but at the same time banned Perón's participation.

1973-76 The Peronists are back in power

Héctor Cámpora was a candidate for the Frente Justicialista de Liberación - the name adopted by the Peronist movement up to the election. He got 49% of the vote in the March 73 election. Cámpora took over the presidential post in May just to resign just two months later to pave the way for his leader, Juan Perón. On September 23, Perón was elected president with 62% of the vote. He made his wife María Estela Martínez de Perón - "Isabelita" - vice president. Peronism resumed relations with Cuba, proposed changes in the Organization of American States (OAS) for the benefit of Latin America, Argentina joined the Alliance Free Movement and increased trade with the Socialist countries.

Perón had displayed a fabulous ability to balance the politically diverse wings of the Peronist movement, but the ever-stronger contradictions in the Argentine community and especially the Ezeiza massacre on June 23 forced Perón to openly choose and he chose the right wing. The purging of the left peronists was carried out at record speed, and the right turn took even more speed when Perón died in July 1974 and was followed by his wife. She was totally dominated by the Minister of Social Affairs, José López Rega. created Alianza Anticomunista Argentina(AAA, Argentina's Anti-Communist Alliance). An umbrella body tasked with executing people from the Marxist opposition and the Peronist left. At the same time, the guerrilla intensified its activities both in the city and in the countryside. Among other things. created ERP «liberated zones» in Tucumán Province. The terrorist regime of López Regas and Isabel Perón still faced increasing resistance in the people, and the ineffable regime was also unable to serve the interests of the ruling classes.


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