Asia’s population is approx. 60% of the earth’s population. Nearly two-thirds live in just two countries: China with $ 1.3 billion. and India by approx. 1 billion inhabitants. But states such as Indonesia (225 million), Japan (127 million), Pakistan (142 million) and Bangladesh (131 million) (2001) also have more input than any Western European state. Asia’s population belongs mainly to the European and Mongoloid race. The first includes the majority of the population in Western and Southern Asia as well as in Siberia; the latter is particularly widespread in East, Central and South Asia.
Population density is of the same magnitude as Europe’s, despite the fact that large areas of Siberia, Turan, Tibet, Mongolia and the Arabian Peninsula are uninhabited. In other areas, the population density exceeds 1000 inc. km2, i.a. along several of the major rivers (Ganges and Huang He) and on the coastal plains (eg in Japan). Before industrialization, population density depended mainly on the resource base for agriculture, especially rice cultivation. This was mainly due to good irrigation opportunities such as in the river valleys of China, India and Mesopotamia (Iraq). Administration and trade could bring about additional local population concentrations.
Many Asian cities are ancient centers of early state formation. Jericho is estimated to be around 10,000 years old. Even in ancient times, the capitals were of considerable size (Babylon, Nineveh, Mohenjo-Daro, Beijing). The trade routes eventually created trading cities such as Samarkand, Bukhara and Kashgar, all of them on old, important caravan roads. Aden, Mumbai, Singapore and Hong Kong are set as cities by sea to India and the Far East.
Industrialization in the 1900s. has naturally led to strong urban growth, but in many places this is not the result of increased industrial employment in the cities, but rather the fact that life there (eg in Calcutta) has made migrants to offer more opportunities than the rather hopeless life as landless in the countryside. Modern urban growth with or without industrialization has meant that more than 80 cities in Asia now have a population exceeding one million; some even have more than 10 million. (Shanghai, Mumbai, Kolkata, Tokyo, Beijing).
|Country||Main export goods||Largest trading partner|
|Afghanistan||opium (unofficial), fruits and nuts, carpets, wool, cotton, leather goods, precious stones||Pakistan, India, Iran, China (2017)|
|Bahrain||oil, oil products, aluminum||Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, China, Japan, India, Brazil, USA, EU|
|Bangladesh||clothing, jute and jute goods, fish and shrimp||Exporting countries: USA, Germany, UK. Importing countries: China, India, Singapore, Japan. (2016)|
|Bhutan||electricity, metal alloys and minerals, cement||India|
|Brunei||oil, liquefied natural gas (2017)||Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia (2017)|
|Burma||natural gas, wood products, legumes, fish, rice, clothing, jade, gemstones (official export, not smuggling) (2018)||China, Singapore, Thailand, Japan (2018)|
|Philippines||electronic equipment, including computer chips and microprocessors, iron, steel and other metals, vehicles and other transport equipment||China, Japan, USA, Saudi Arabia, Singapore,|
|United Arab Emirates||oil, natural gas, fish, dates||Japan, India, Iran, China, USA (2012)|
|India||machinery, vehicles, iron and steel, chemicals, oil products; pearls, precious stones and jewelery; clothing, fabrics and sporting goods; technologically advanced industrial goods (eg software for computers)||USA, China, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia|
|Indonesia||coal products, natural gas, palm oil, natural rubber, oil, electrical appliances||China, Singapore, South Korea, Japan, USA|
|Iraq||crude oil, oil products||China, EU, USA, India, Iran|
|Iran||oil, real carpets, caviar, agricultural products||Japan, China, United Arab Emirates, Italy, South Korea, Germany, France, Russia|
|Israel||industrial goods, precious diamonds, flowers, citrus fruits, other fruits, vegetables, peanuts, cotton, arms||USA, EU countries, China, India|
|Japan||vehicles, machinery, electronics, chemicals, metals||China incl Hong Kong, USA, South Korea, Taiwan|
|Yemen||crude oil, oil products||IKina, Thailand, India|
|Jordan||clothing, fertilizers, potash, phosphate, vegetables, medicines||USA, Iraq, India, Saudi Arabia, China,|
|Cambodia||clothing and other textiles, footwear||China, USA|
|Kazakhstan||Oil and oil products, metals, cereals (2017)||Russia, China, Italy, Germany, Netherlands, France, Switzerland (2017)|
|China||electronics, machinery, textiles and footwear, transport, electric power and medical equipment, chemicals||USA, Japan, South Korea|
|Kyrgyzstan||gold, precious stones, minerals, textiles (2018)||China, Russia, Kazakhstan (2018)|
|Kuwait||crude oil and refined petroleum products, fertilizers||China, USA, Japan, United Arab Emirates, EU|
|Laos||electricity, minerals, wood products, clothing and textiles, coffee (2017)||Thailand, China, Vietnam (2017)|
|Lebanon||jewelry, metals, vehicles, machinery and electronics, wine, tobacco and vegetables||Syria, South Africa (for export) 3|
|Malaysia||electrical and electronic goods, oil, natural gas (in liquid form), chemicals, textiles, transport equipment, palm oil, rubber, pharmaceuticals, timber, wood products||China, Singapore, USA, Japan, Thailand (2018)|
|Maldives||fish and fish products||Thailand, Sri Lanka, United Kingdom, France, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, India, Malaysia|
|Mongolia||copper, coal. gold, crude oil, cashmere wool, wood products, hides||China, Russia, Canada, EU, USA, South Korea, Japan|
|Nepal||carpets, clothing, hardware and steel products, jute products||India, USA, China, Bangladesh, Germany|
|North Korea||coal, minerals, textiles, agricultural and fishery products||China, South Korea|
|Oman||oil, natural gas, fish, metals, textiles||United Arab Emirates, China, Japan, South Korea, Thailand, India|
|Pakistan||textiles (bedding, towels, clothing, cotton fabrics, cotton yarn), basmati rice, leather and leather goods, jewelery (2017)||Export: USA, UK, China, Afghanistan, Germany. Imports: China, United Arab Emirates, USA, Indonesia (2017)|
|Qatar||natural gas, oil and oil products, fertilizers, steel||Japan, China, EU, USA, Singapore|
|Saudi Arabia||oil, petrochemicals and plastics products||USA, China, Japan, South Korea, Germany, India|
|Singapore||electronics, oil, petrochemical products, telecom equipment||Malaysia, China, USA, Hong Kong|
|Sri Lanka||clothing and textiles, tea, precious stones, coconut, rubber, jewelry, spices 1||Exporting countries: USA, UK, India, Germany. Importing countries: China, India, United Arab Emirates 4|
|South Korea||electronics, oil products, cars, machinery, metal goods, ships, chemicals||USA, China, Japan, Saudi Arabia|
|Syria||oil, cotton, fruit, vegetables 2||Germany and other EU countries, Iraq. Lebanon, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, China 5|
|Tajikistan||aluminum, cotton, electricity (2018)||Uzbekistan, Russia, China, Turkey, Egypt, Kazakhstan (2018)|
|Taiwan||electronics (incl. computers and computer equipment), metals, textiles||China, Hong Kong, USA, Japan, Singapore|
|Thailand||electrical appliances, computers and circuit boards, clothing, foodstuffs (including rice, fish, shellfish, chicken)||China, USA, Japan|
|Turkmenistan||natural gas, oil, cotton||China, Turkey, Germany, Russia, USA (2017)|
|Uzbekistan||energy products (mainly natural gas), gold and other metals, cotton, food, fertilizers (2017)||China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Switzerland, Turkey (2017)|
|Vietnam||crude oil, textiles, seafood, rice, electronics, rubber (2017)||China, USA, Japan, South Korea (2017)|
|East Timor||coffee, oil, natural gas (2018)||Exporting countries (excluding oil and natural gas): USA, Canada, Indonesia, Germany, China. Importing countries: Indonesia, Hong Kong, Singapore, China. (2018)|
Asian population growth is close to the global average, but growth is declining; it was at just under 2% growth on average per year. years in the 1980s, though somewhat unevenly distributed across countries. A few countries have an average growth rate (eg India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam and Turkey); Japan, China and South Korea are the lowest. The highest growth rates have countries such as Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Syria and Saudi Arabia.
According to Countryaah, most countries in Asia have had a period of high population growth in modern times. The traditionally high birth rate was no longer matched by high mortality. The fall in mortality is not only due to medical progress, for example in the fight against “the major diseases” (tuberculosis, malaria, smallpox, cholera ,etc.), but also improved hygiene and nutrition. However, the average life expectancy in countries such as Afghanistan and Nepal is still only approx. 40 years. The combination of high birth rate and (still) high mortality means that the population of many countries is very young and that many need to be supported and educated. It is unusual for relatively poor countries that population growth has declined; this is due to an effective response to the high birth rates. In China and India, families with one or two children are part of the adopted development strategy, although the methods for achieving this are very different.
Wanderings. Compared to Asia’s population, immigration and emigration are quite insignificant. However, migrations have repeatedly sent large crowds out of Asia to Europe. Females and Turks are historical examples. Large migrations the opposite way have also taken place, in historical times such as the Indians’ advance in India. More recently, significant Russian immigration to Siberia and to the former Soviet republics in Asia. An extensive emigration has taken place from China, mostly targeting South Asia, but also for example the United States, which has also received a number of Japanese immigrants. Also, minor migrations, such as the work emigrations of Turks in recent years as well as refugee flows of Palestinians and Kurds from West Asia to Europe, have had economic-political significance.
Relocations within Asia have had a far greater scope. In connection with the conquest of Korea and Manchuria in the early 1900s. some Japanese settled in these countries. For the operation of i.e. plantations in Sri Lanka were introduced by the British in the late 1800s. some Tamils whose descendants have since been parties to violent conflicts.
As mentioned, immigration of foreigners has taken place in Siberia, but most of the population movements related to colonization took place between the countries of Asia. Thus, European colonization was not followed by major settlements by Europeans, although colonial powers ruled vast lands. The history of perhaps the greatest migration of history took place in connection with the 1947 liberation of the former British India, which was divided into India and Pakistan. It led to violent clashes between Hindus and Muslims and led to the exchange of large crowds, approx. 12 million people.
The most extensive current migrations are made by urbanization. But there are also large centrally planned population movements. Particularly well known is Indonesia’s relocation of people from overpopulated Java to the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. It should also be mentioned that scheduled, but individually decided, movements are part of the life style of many people. In the central steppe areas, on the high plains of Iran, etc., there are still large population groups that feed themselves as nomadic shepherds.