Oceania Music & Dance
In Oceania, music and dance constitute an integrated art form, performed by singing or playing groups who simultaneously dance. Vocal music is more common than instrumental music; however, slot drums of hollowed-out tree trunks and conical trumpets are widespread.
In Polynesia, vocal music and dance are based on poetry that is poetically and choreographed by especially knowledgeable. At public events, song dances are performed, which praise the chiefs and pay tribute to their lineage, stories are told through song poems with recitation, the mess, and voice singing, while hand and arm movements illustrate certain words; only men run and jump. Traditional polyphony (among other things based on burgundy) is common, except for New Zealand Maoris, who unanimously carry on single notes. On the big islands are several instruments such as cylindrical drums and the famous nose flutes.
Micronesia’s music and dance were used in tattooing rituals, which have now almost ceased. Here, too, the poems are of paramount importance, and hand and arm movements decorate the story abstractly rather than illustrate it. The sea is an important theme and cane dancing is typical.
In Melanesia, music is used during ceremonies by transitional rites, secret societies, inauguration of large slot drums, etc. whistles, pan whistles, rattles and hourglass-shaped drums. In larger rituals, the instruments illuminate voices of supernatural beings, who are also personified with masks, costumes and ceremonial ornaments worn on the arms, while resilient movements with legs and body carry the rhythmic pulse. The melody is most often pentatone or consists of three tones in distance (such as CEG) in addition to other types. In Papua New Guinea, music and dance are predominantly collective with responsorial singing.
In the Solomon Islands, pan flute groups play and dance composed pieces of music that illustrate the sounds of nature and human phenomena. The song is improvised and multi-voiced.
The presence of Western culture on the larger Polynesian islands since the 1800s. has meant the introduction of ukulele and of the anthem in the coral style. Tahitian heavens combine Polynesian and European elements. Western influenced popular music was initially Hawaiian style, since Pan-Polynesian pop (around World War II), followed by the Melanesian contribution of Pan-Pacific Pop. The Fenua Band (Tahiti and Hawaii) and the Apiti Band (Cook Islands) are current groups in the 1990s.
According to Countryaah, New Zealand is the second largest country in the Oceania by population.
|Country||Main export goods||Largest trading partner|
|Australia||agricultural products (meat, wool, wheat, wine), coal, metals (iron ore, nickel, aluminum), oil, gas, industrial goods (transport and telecommunications equipment, cars)||Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, China, USA|
|Fiji||mineral water, gold, clothing, fish, sugar (2018)||China, USA, Australia, Singapore, New Zealand, Japan (2018)|
|Kiribati||kopra (dried coconut meat), coconuts, coconut oil, seaweed, sea cucumbers||Australia, Fiji, Malaysia (2015)|
|Marshall Islands||fish, coconut products (2018)||South Korea, Singapore, China (2018)|
|Micronesia Federation||fish, shellfish, betel nuts, kava (2017)||USA, Thailand, Guam, Taiwan (2017)|
|Nauru||phosphate (2018)||Australia, South Korea, Nigeria, Japan, USA, Fiji (2018)|
|New Zealand||dairy products, meat (lamb, sheep, beef), wood and paper, fruit and nuts||USA, Australia, Japan, China, UK, other EU countries|
|Palau||tuna, clothing, shellfish, copra (2018)||USA, Guam, Japan, China (2018)|
|Papua New Guinea||natural gas, gold, copper, crude oil, agricultural products (2018)||Australia, China, USA, Singapore, Japan (2018)|
|Solomon Islands||timber, fish, cocoa, copra, palm oil (2018)||China, Australia, Singapore, Malaysia (2018)|
|Samoa||fish, coconut products, taro (2018)||New Zealand, Australia, American Samoa, China, Singapore (2018)|
|Tonga||pumpkins, fish, vanilla (2019)||New Zealand, USA, Australia, China (2019)|
|Tuvalu||kopra (dried coconut meat) (2018)||Singapore, Philippines, Fiji, Australia, USA, Japan, New Zealand (2018)|
|Vanuatu||copper, coconut oil, cocoa, beef, timber, kava (2018)||Australia, New Zealand, Singapore (2019)|
Movies in New Zealand
The first film screening in New Zealand took place in Auckland in 1896, and two years later the country’s first topical films were produced. The first feature film was Hinemoa (1914), directed by George Tarr following a Maori legend. Rudall Hayward made six full-length feature films in the 1920s. An audio film, Down the Farm, was recorded in 1935. But until 1970, the documentary was virtually the only film genre, with films produced by the state production unit National Film Unit (NFU) created in 1941 at the initiative of John Grierson. Among the films are Michael Furlong’s Rhythm and Movement (1948). The feature film production in the post-war era was limited to three films directed by John O’Shea.
Following the initiative of O’Shea, who later became a major producer, the authorities established the New Zealand Film Commission (1978) with the aim of supporting film production. A number of new talents were noted both at home and internationally. Roger Donaldson created the cinema success Smash Palace (1982), Geoff Murphy got international distribution with Utu (1983), a tale from the colonial era, and Vincent Ward created the time travel fable The Navigator (1988). Based in Australia, Jane Campion got a lot of attention with An Angel at My Table (1990) and The Piano (1993); the latter won the Gold Palm in Cannes and three Academy Awards. Lee Tamahori got international attention with his debut filmOnce Were Warriors (Once We Were Warriors, 1994). Other directors include Ian Mune, John Laing, Alison MacLean and Derek Morton. Peter Jackson, who previously made horror films for the cult market, has become a world name with his trilogy Lord of the Rings (2001–03) after Tolkien.
Music in New Zealand
The music scene is characterized by the divide between the Moorish Polynesian culture and the immigrants’ English and Anglican background.
Although the Moorish lifestyle is strongly influenced by the immigrant culture, their music is still alive. The vocal music is traditionally divided according to the mode of performance: one recitative and one sung. Some songs have a ritual character. It is often sung unanimously in a group, with a leader. Great emphasis is placed on correct performance, errors are perceived as a bad notice. Among the relatively few instrument types are three-gongs, three-trumpets, conch horns, mouth harps and finely carved, end-blown whistles.
The immigrants brought with them their music traditions, especially Anglican church music, choral singing and band music (brass bands). Scottish, Irish and Bavarian bagpipe music is still being cultivated. High-level amateur orchestras existed long before a professional orchestra was established in 1946 in the state radio company. The music education in the school and at the universities is based on British pattern. The most famous composer, Douglas Lilburn (b. 1915), established the first electronic music studio in the South Pacific, in Wellington (1964-66).
Cook Islands yearbook 2004
Cook Islands. The residents of the Cook Islands went to parliamentary elections on September 7. However, accusations of electoral fraud made the election result delayed. Only at the end of the year did the news come that the ruling, bourgeois Democratic Party (DP) had won. In November, the DP formed a government with the opposition party Cook Islands Party (CIP). However, government cooperation was rejected by several of the DP’s members in parliament.
When the Supreme Court in December ordered filling elections in a constituency, the newly-appointed government was forced to resign pending the new election result. New positions in parliament later this month saw Jim Marurai of the Demo Tumu Party take over the Prime Minister’s post and form a new government.
Cook Islands yearbook 2002
Cook Islands. The government was forced to resign on February 12 after losing a vote of no confidence in Parliament. New Prime Minister Robert Woonton, who was Deputy Prime Minister of the previous government and voted for the Declaration of Unbelief.
In 2002, the country was also criticized by the economic cooperation organization OECD for lack of measures against money laundering.
In the fall, a brutal murder was discovered in the Cook Islands, for the first time in eight years. Concerns were spread, police called for reinforcement from New Zealand, and the Justice Minister urged the public not to be panicked.
Cook Islands yearbook 2001
Cook Islands. At the beginning of the year, the government announced that it would not be able to carry out the economic reforms against money laundering recommended by the OECD before the deadline expires June 1, 2001. Thus, the Cook Islands risked being subjected to international sanctions by 2003. The country is included in the list over 35 tax havens published by the OECD in June 2000.
In February, Fred Goodwin was appointed new Governor General of the Territory. Goodwin is the leader of the ruling Democratic Alliance Party and former government minister. He replaced Sir Apenera Short.
On August 3, Robert Woonton became new Deputy Prime Minister, thereby replacing Norman George, who was laid off in July for incessantly demanding a larger portion of the budget for his areas of expertise, primarily health, police and media and communications. Robert Woonton was previously Minister of Foreign and Immigration.
State statistics showed that the number of residents in the islands decreased. On January 31, 2001, the population was 14,300 compared with 18,900 in 1996. The reason was stated to be emigration. The government therefore appointed a group whose task is to get citizens to return to the Cook Islands.
Cook Islands yearbook 1999
Cook Islands. Cook Islands has been New Zealand territory since 1965, with full autonomy in domestic affairs. New Zealand’s government is represented by Commissioner Rob Moore-Jones. Joe Williams was elected new prime minister on July 30 after a political domestic crisis that forced Geoffrey Henry to resign. Henry’s ability to form a new government after the June elections had been undermined by several layoffs by significant members of the government.
Cook Islands yearbook 1997
Cook Islands. Prime Minister Geoffrey Henry announced in September that Cook Islands has entered into an agreement with Norway on metal and mineral extraction from the seabed. The agreement means that the Norwegians will try to extract primarily cobalt, nickel and copper at a depth of 5,000 meters. Custom-built Norwegian vessels will pull the seabed north of the Rarotonga volcano to try to fish up so-called nodules – lumps of various metals and minerals – that are believed to be found here. Henry also announced plans to build a factory to extract metals and minerals from the nodules.