Zambia. The news from Zambia in 2009 was a lot about corruption. Former President Levy Mwanawasa was praised for his fight against corruption, but since he died in 2008, the problems seem to have increased again. While former president’s wife Regina Chiluba was sentenced to 3.5 years in prison for buying several properties for stolen state funds, her husband Frederick Chiluba (president 1991-2002) was acquitted after a multi-year corruption process. In 2007, a British court found him guilty of neglecting the equivalent of about SEK 300 million during his time in power. The head of the state anti-corruption authority was dismissed after he planned to appeal the acquittal of Chiluba.
According to countryaah, the Minister of Transport was forced to resign in May after she was found guilty of corruption by a special court. After only a few weeks, however, she was reinstated in her post by President Rupiah Banda. The president’s decision was criticized for further damaging Zambia’s credibility, since several countries had recently frozen aid for more than SEK 200 million following corruption scandals. Sweden was one of the countries that decided to withhold aid to Zambia since between SEK 5 and 10 million of Swedish aid disappeared.
The strong state of Lun began to weaken in the late 18th century, when Mozambican and Arab slave traders penetrated the country and carried the “goods” to the east, where the slaves were sold to Europeans. As the slave trade weakened again in the 19th century, Mwata Yambo (the lunda kings) also weakened. This, together with the greater powers of power of Kazembe (provincial governors), opened up the formation of a number of smaller kingdoms.
The Portuguese invaded the country several times in the period 1798-1811 in an attempt to link their colonies to Mozambique and Angola , but resistance from the Zulus prevented this. Some people like the Soto people succeeded in establishing an independent state. In the case of the Soto, it was in the southwest corner of Zambia around 1835.
In 1851, British missionary David Livingstone arrived at the Victoria Falls on the Zambesi River. Livingstone was followed by merchants and explorers who worked for Cecil Rhodes – the English millionaire who wanted to expand his possessions to the north (see Zimbabwe). In 1889, Rhodes gained rights from the British Crown to his company, British-South Africa Co. gained a monopoly on trade and mining in the region. In particular, Rhodes wanted access to the rich mines of Katanga (now Shaba) in the current Democratic Republic of Congo .
The following year, Rhodes entered into an agreement with Soto King Lewanika to make his country a protectorate. It was quickly transformed into an actual colony named Northern Rhodesia.
Rhodes retained control of Northern Rhodesia to prevent the Portuguese from fulfilling their old dream of uniting Mozambique and Angola and exploiting the copper deposits. In 1909 a railway was built out to the Indian Ocean, and along it European settlers began to settle down to farm and cattle farming. In 1924, England took over the colony administration with the area, while South African and North American mining companies increased their investment in the copper mines. 13 years later, 40,000 Africans worked in the mines, making towering profits – thanks to cheap labor. The poverty of the miners triggered many protest actions and gave rise to the formation of trade unions, which became the seed of the first nationalist movements such as the North Rhodesia African National Congress (NRANC). In 1952, teacher Kenneth Kaunda became Secretary General of NRANC, which until then had been led by Harry Nkumbula. Kaunda became the sponsor of Zambia’s independence.
In 1953, the British organized a federation between Northern Rhodesia (Zambia), Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and Nyassaland (Malawi). They wanted to develop a kind of ” division of labor ” that gave Zambia the role of a mining producer, and Zimbabwe the role of agricultural producer. NRANC was at the forefront of the fight against racial discrimination and independence, but as Nkumbula stumbled across a constitutional project that would ensure the continued hegemony of whites , Kaunda decided to break out and form the African National Congress of Zambia (ANCZ) as well as boycott the elections.
ANCZ was banned and Kaunda was jailed in 1959. His supporters founded the United National Independence Party (UNIP), which led Kaunda when he was released in 1960. UNIP was also banned after a few months, but the consequence of the suppression of The majority of the people was that the violence in 1961 broke out in Zambia. The following year, the British government was forced to implement a constitutional reform that met a number of UNIP requirements. The nationalists were strengthened by this victory and in 1964 they succeeded in getting the federation dissolved. That same year, UNIP won the election and proclaimed the country’s independence in October.