The Anasazi were a group of Amerindian tribes from the cultural super-area of Oasisamerica. They occupied, in various groups, the surface of the present states of Colorado, Utah, Arizona and New Mexico. Your civilization is interesting for several reasons. It has left several monumental and liturgical vestiges in different places, of which two have been classified as World Heritage by UNESCO. The remains found by archaeologists demonstrate a knowledge of pottery, weaving, and irrigation.
In addition, they drew symbols that have not been deciphered and observed solar displacements. Beginning in the 1300s, the Anasazi took refuge in the Rio Grande Valley and central Arizona. Their tracks are lost shortly before the arrival of the Spanish. The reasons for this exodus are not known. There are several hypotheses: a climate change that threatened crops, a deteriorating environment that reduced the available arable land, overpopulation, political problems, perhaps wars. However, given the absence of written documents and the limitation of current knowledge, it is not possible to test any of these hypotheses.
The Plains Indians included all the tribes that inhabited the Great Plains (all of the land between the Rocky Mountains and the Mississippi River). For most of its existence, it remained a hunter-gatherer civilization until the 17th century when Spanish explorers introduced horses to the region. The Indians quickly adapted and transformed into a nomadic civilization that followed the migratory routes of the American bison that hunted for food. When the whites invaded and occupied the Great Plains in the 19th century, the Indians engaged in a bitter war of resistance that lasted from 1836 to 1918.. The combination of the Indian Wars and the policy of the United States government to annihilate the American bison resulted in a dramatic demographic collapse in the population of the Plains Indians. After their defeat, the rest of the Indians were confined to reservations, where they remain today.
According to neovideogames.com, the Eskimos are an indigenous people who have traditionally inhabited the circumpolar region of eastern Siberia (Russia), through Alaska (United States), Canada and Greenland. The oldest known Eskimo cultures were pre-Dorset, which appear to have been a fully developed Eskimo culture dating back 5,000 years. They appear to have evolved in Alaska from people using archaic little tech tools, who had likely migrated to Alaska from Siberia at least 2,000 to 3,000 years ago, although they could have been in Alaska as early as 10,000 to 12,000 years ago. or more. There are similar artifacts found in Siberia, dating back perhaps 18,000 years ago.
The Forest Indians inhabited the forests between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mississippi River. These tribes were generally communal and lived in villages with wooden huts and lanes. The reception of the English explorers was mixed with some resulting in war and extermination, while others were peaceful, such as the first Thanksgiving or the life of Pocahontas. Finally, the relationship between the English and the Forest Indians was one of permanent hostility, so much so that the French, who controlled the valley of the Mississippi River, used it to their advantage. The French maintained a policy of trade and peace with the Forest Indians and eventually formed a military alliance with them.
The most advanced of the pre-Columbian civilizations in the territory that is now the United States was the Iroquois Confederation. The Iroquois Confederation, or the Five Nations, was a democratic Iroquois league or confederation, with both participatory and representative characteristics (combined with some hereditary). It was made up of Amerindian tribes with the Iroquois language, who lived in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada in the Great Lakes area.. The Confederation was originally made up of five tribes (Seneca, Cayuga, Oneida, Onondaga, and Mohawk) that confederated in the mid-12th century, and were joined by Tuscarora in 1720. The democratic regime of the Confederacy was regulated by a constitution of 117 articles known as the Great Law of Peace and governed by a Parliament or Council of representatives of the population, considered the second oldest in the world after the Althing of Iceland.
The Great Law of Peace established a kind of rule of law with strict limits and restrictions on the power of the rulers. It also established a division of power between men and women, establishing that no man could preside over a clan and no woman be a military chief or sachem. It was up to the heads of the clans to choose the military chiefs. Thus the Confederation had a direct influence both on democracy and constitutionalism, as well as on the idea of the equality of women and men in modern society. Especially Benjamin Franklin, who had direct contact with Haudenosaunee in 1753, emphasized in his works that the degree of individual autonomy enjoyed by the residents of the league was unknown in Europe and published the Indian treatises, considered one of his most important works. For thinkers or historians of radical movements such as Howard Zinn, the Confederation of the Six Nations is an example of the application of radical democracy through assembly decisions.