In 2009, Turkmenistan had an estimated population of 5.2 million people, with a growth rate of 1.4%. The economy was largely based on exports of natural gas, petroleum and petrochemicals as well as services in the areas of finance and transportation. Foreign relations were mainly focused on trade agreements with the Commonwealth of Independent States and other countries in the region. In terms of politics, Turkmenistan was a unitary republic with a president as head of state. In 2009, Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow was the president at that time and his party had a majority in both houses of Parliament. See internetsailors for Turkmenistan in the year of 2011.
Turkmenistan. According to countryaah, the country’s gas export was a major political conflict issue during the year. An explosion in the pipeline halted deliveries to the Russian Federation in April, prompting Turkmenistan to accuse the Russian federation of causing the explosion with the intention of stripping gas imports. It was rejected by the Russian state-owned company Gazprom. Turkmenistan lost huge sums when gas supplies to the Russian Federation were down, as the country was almost entirely dependent on the Russian market for its exports. Turkmenistan tried to widen gas exports, for example through the construction of a pipeline to China, which was inaugurated at the end of the year. They also hoped for the so-called Nabucco lead to the EU. But in May, when the EU signed an agreement with a number of countries on the Nabucco leadership, there were reports that the Russian Federation was pushing Turkmenistan not to join the settlement. The Turkmen President later explained that the country intended to join the plans of the leadership. In September, the presidents of Turkmenistan and the Russian Federation met to try to resolve the issue of interrupted gas supplies to the Russian Federation, but only in December did the two countries manage to agree on prices and resumed deliveries. At that time, export problems to the Russian Federation had contributed to the dismissal of the head of state Turkmengaz and the heads of two state oil companies. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for abbreviation TM which stands for the nation of Turkmenistan.
In October, environmental activist Andrei Zatoka was sentenced in a closed trial to five years in prison accused of assault, which he himself was rigged by the authorities. Zatoka was not allowed to have a lawyer and he saw himself as a victim of political persecution by the regime. Human Rights Watch demanded that he be released. When press freedom in the countries of the world was ranked by state-sponsored US Freedom House during the year, Turkmenistan came in second place with Burma and with only North Korea lower on the list. Turkmenistan has no independent media. Many students were stopped during the year from studying abroad and some were banned from multi-year travel bans. Human rights groups urged the EU and the US to do more towards the oil-rich regime in the country when it came to human rights.
In July, a giant project was started to create an artificial lake of 2,000 square kilometers in the Karakum desert. The lake will be filled with drainage water from the country’s large cotton fields, and the regime hopes to make the desert bloom. Critics warned that the water would be so rich in fertilizers and pesticides that it would form a salt lake similar to the Dead Sea. Lack of water is a serious conflict issue in Central Asia, and Turkmenistan’s sea plans are one of the world’s largest building projects estimated to cost the equivalent of SEK 140 billion.
On the Sunday market in Ashkhabad you can buy the famous Bukhara carpets, which are made in Turkmenistan and not in Bukhara in Uzbekistan. The Art Museum exhibits Turkmen handicrafts, silver and garments such as B. sheepskin hats sold. Food and curios are on sale at the Central Bazaar. The Tekke Bazaar is built entirely of marble. Shop opening hours: Mon-Fri 09.00-18.00. The bazaars open at dawn.
Opera, ballet and theater performances are held in Ashkhabad.
Turkmen cuisine is similar to that of other Central Asian countries. Plov (stir pieces of lamb, turnips and rice cooked in a wok) is the national dish of all Central Asian republics. Shashlik and Lipioschka (flatbread) are offered in restaurants and at food stands. Manty are balls of dough filled with meat. Shorpa is a meat and vegetable soup. Particular specialties are Ka’urma (lamb fried in its own fat) and Tschurban Tschurpa (lamb fat with green tea). Ischklykli are dumplings stuffed with meat and onions that are cooked in heated sand. On the shore of the Caspian Sea, dishes are prepared with fish instead of lamb. In the west of the country, lamb is cooked with herbs in the tandoori oven. Drinks: The national drink is green tea. Kefir is often drunk for breakfast. Beer, wine, vodka, brandy and sparkling wine are served in restaurants.
The bed capacity is relatively limited. However, many new and luxurious hotels have been built in the capital since independence. A tourism fee of US$ 2 per night is charged to foreign tourists and visitors. Special expenses may apply to overnight stays in hotels.
There are numerous campsites along the Caspian Sea.
89% Islam (mainly Sunni), 9% Russian Orthodox minority.
Social Rules of Conduct
Before entering a house, you take off your shoes. Flatbread should never be placed face down on the table. Women should dress modestly.
Best travel time
Continental climate with very hot summers and fairly cold winters (down to -15°C).
Area (sq km)
Population density (per square km)
Population statistics year
Main emergency number