Rwanda. A few thousand Rwandan soldiers entered Congo (Kinshasa) in January, unlike previous occasions at the invitation of the neighboring government to jointly attack with the Congolese army the Rwandan hutumilis that has plagued the civilian population of eastern Congo for 15 years. After five weeks of offensive, the soldiers returned home. The results of the intervention proved limited, but the cooperation marked the beginning of a new and more peaceful relationship with the neighbor, and the two governments later agreed on cooperation on a number of economic issues. However, Rwanda did not want to extradite Congolese tutor Laurent Nkunda, who was arrested in Rwanda after moving across the border when his militia was employed by the Congolese army and UN troops. According to countryaah, Nkunda has been considered to have close ties to the Rwanda government. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for abbreviation RW which stands for the nation of Rwanda.
Yet 15 years after the Tutsis genocide, the trials against war criminals continue. At the UN-backed war crimes tribunal ICTR in Tanzania, a former Deputy Home Minister was sentenced to 30 years in prison for involvement in the genocide and the former governor of Kigali to life imprisonment. By contrast, the Chamber of Appeal acquitted Protais Zigiranyirazo, a brother-in-law of former President Juvénal Habyarimana, who had previously been sentenced to 22 years in prison for being charged with murdering Tutsis. The judges referred to gross errors during the lower court trial. The liberation caused a stir in the Rwandan government.
In Belgium, a Rwandan former bank director was sentenced to 30 years in prison for financing hutumilis and a radio station that turned up to murder Tutsis. A court in Rwanda imprisoned former Justice Minister Agnès Ntamabyariro for life in prison for genocide. She was the first high ranking member of the former Hutu regime to be investigated in Rwanda. A traditional grassroots court, gacaca, sentenced a member of the current two-term government-sponsored FPR (Front Patriotic Rwandais) to life imprisonment for being a member of the Interahamwe hutumilis.
Rawanda President Paul Kagame suggested that all cases that ICTR does not review should be transferred to the Rwandan judiciary, which he believes is now capable of dealing with difficult cases fairly. In July, Sweden decided to hand over a suspected war criminal to Rwanda, a former head of the Rwandan Civil Aviation Administration. However, the disclosure was stopped by the European Court of Justice. The UN Security Council extended the mandate for ICTR to December 31, 2012. Ordinary cases will be completed until the end of the year 2010, after which the last 18 months will be devoted to appeals. Originally, the Court would have closed its proceedings in 2008.
In November, Rwanda resumed diplomatic relations with France but was approved at the same time as a member of the English-speaking organization Commonwealth.
In June 1988 the sixth congress of the MRND was held (the previous one was held in 1985), focused on the questions of economic development, on the demographic problem (the policies of birth limitation involved the relations of the state with the very influential Catholic Church, traditionally excellent in Rwanda, as opposed to Burundi) and on the designation for the presidential elections of December 1988. In these, accompanied by legislative elections, Habyarimana obtained the third term. In 1990 a serious phase of instability began in the country due on the one hand to the growing demands for democratization and on the other to the guerrilla operations following the penetration by Uganda of militias of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (FPR), mostly composed of Tutsi refugees.. Habyarimana, while opening to opposition parties, he created a well-armed presidential militia, favored the formation in the party of a youth wing made up of loyalists and gave birth to a movement of Hutu extremists. In the meantime, the negotiations started with the FPR thanks to the mediation of the neighboring countries led, after countless disregarded ceasefires, in August 1993 to an agreement (stipulated in Arusha in Tanzania) which provided, among other things, for the formation of a government of transition with the participation of the FPR and the creation of an integrated army, all under the supervision of the UN. Less than a year later, while the agreement remained essentially unimplemented, the situation worsened when Habyarimana’s plane exploded in flight as it approached Kigali on April 6, 1994. A ‘ now since the death of the president his militia – suspected by some of the incident – began a massacre of unprecedented proportions, killing militants of opposition parties, representatives of the UN, but above all belonging to the Tutsi minority. The victims (mostly killed with machetes and horribly mutilated) amounted to more than 500,000. The resumption of the FPR offensive was followed by a massive exodus of the Hutu population, worried about possible reprisals, to Tanzania and Zaire, where thousands died from disease and hardship. Overcoming many conflicts, the UN authorized France to undertake a military operation (lasting a few months) aimed at creating a security zone in Rwanda, an operation opposed by the FPR for the support in the past assured by the French to the Hutu regime. On 9 July 1994, a provisional government led by two was formed leaders of moderate Hutu parties, while P. Kagame, head of the FPR, assumed the post of vice president and the key one of defense minister.