Jordan. King Abdullah dissolved the parliament on November 24, and a few weeks later, December 9, Prime Minister Nader Dahabi resigned, after which the king appointed a close associate, corporate leader Samir al-Rifai, as new head of government. The outgoing parliament, dominated by the Islamic Muslim Brotherhood, had halted many political and economic reforms that the government and the king wanted to push through. Among other things, there were changes in the electoral law that would reduce the Brotherhood’s influence and financial austerity which would reduce the country’s budget deficit, calculated at 7.3 percent of GDP. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for abbreviation JO which stands for the nation of Jordan.
According to countryaah, Jordan’s everyday life was characterized by severe water shortages during the year. Climate change combined with dam construction in Jordan and neighboring countries has resulted in a 95 percent reduction in the flow of water in the country’s most important river Jordan. Many households had running water in their pipes just one day a week; the rest of the time they had to buy water. The government planned to pump water partly through a pipeline from the underground groundwater source Disy at the border with Saudi Arabia and partly via a channel from the Red to the Dead Sea. None of the projects had yet begun.
Three men were sentenced March 16 to 22 and a half years in prison for planning attacks on a church and against government buildings in the capital Amman.
Inserted in a regional context characterized by strong and prolonged political tensions, Jordan continued to be heavily conditioned by the events that affected the Middle East. In particular, the country suffered both from the diplomatic isolation resulting from the position taken during the Gulf War (on that occasion Jordan had declared herself neutral and opposed to armed intervention against Iraq), and from the opening of direct dialogue between the PLO and Israel, which meant a de facto reduction of Jordan’s influence on the Palestinian question. Furthermore, the government was faced with the difficulty of reconciling economic needs, which required the resumption of relations with the main Western and Arab partners and an opening towards Tel Aviv.
In an attempt to recover the traditional role of mediation played by the country, the monarchy intensified international relations, changing its orientation: in the face of a cooling of relations with Iraq, relations with the United States and the Gulf countries improved, while particularly intense they became those with Israel, especially after the signing, in September 1993, of the Declaration of Principles between the latter and the PLO.
The negotiations between Tel Aviv and Jordan, supported by US diplomacy, resulted in the peace treaty stipulated in October 1994, the second concluded by Israel with an Arab state, after that of 1979 with Egypt. This treaty, which provided, among other things, for the recognition by Tel Aviv to Jordan of a ‘special role’ of protection in relation to the holy places in Jerusalem, caused a deterioration in relations with the PLO which it feared would thus come their sovereignty over the city is jeopardized. Relations with the Palestinians improved in January 1995, following the signing of an agreement that reaffirmed ῾Ammān’s recognition of Palestinian rights in East Jerusalem. In July 1995 the Jordanian Parliament, after a heated discussion, repealed the rules forbidding economic relations with Israel and in October a commercial treaty was signed with the latter. Relations with Saudi Arabia also improved, while privileged relations with the United States raised concerns in Egypt and Syria.
Internally, King Ḥusayn continued the policy of cautious liberalization, while continuing to dominate the political scene undisputed. The legislative elections of 1993, the first multi-party, saw the victory of the independent candidates, linked to the king; the only party that obtained substantial representation (16 seats) was the Islamic Action Front, supported by the Muslim Brotherhood. In the following years, the adoption of an economic policy restricting public spending fueled the social protest, which culminated in the August 1996 explosion in Karak, 90km south of the capital, of violent riots against the rise in the price of bread. The intensification of the Islamic opposition also contributed to heightening the tension, strongly critical of the government’s policy of openness towards Israelis and continued even after the formation, in Israel, of a right-wing government led by B. Netanyahu (June 1996). The conflict resulted in the boycott by the main opposition groups of the political elections held in November 1997, which again ended with the victory of the independent candidates linked to the king. During 1998 despite the persistence of strong internal opposition, the commercial relations between Jordan and Israel intensified, provoking harsh criticism even from Syria. When Ḥusayn passed away on 7 February 1999, his son, Abdallah ii, appointed by his father as his successor a few days before his death, ascended the throne.
Ammaʹn, Arabic ˙Ammān, Hebrew Rabbat Bene ˙Ammon, capital of Jordan; 1. 8 million residents (2016). Amman, located 1,000 meters above sea level, 40 km east of Jordan, is built on seven round hills and heavily hilly. It is Jordan’s administrative, commercial and cultural center and the country’s only city with modern infrastructure. After 1948, Amman received a large number of Palestinian refugees, and these now make up the majority of the population. Several large refugee camps are located in or around Amman. In the industry, tobacco, food and textile production are mainly mentioned.
Communities have been around since at least 6000 BC. (Ain Ghazal). Amman was the capital of the kingdom of the Ammonites (hence the name), but eventually fell; the city was conquered by the Arabs in 635. Amman lay completely desolate around 1300, but was rebuilt by the Ottomans in 1878. During the 1970s, large parts of Amman were destroyed during fighting between Jordanian and Palestinian forces.