Ghana. The days following the New Year, John Atta Mills was declared a winner in the December 2008 presidential election. He received 50.23 percent of the vote in the second round, compared to 49.77 percent for Nana Akufo-Addo of the former New Patriotic Party (NPP) government party. The election of former Vice President Atta Mills of the National Democratic Congress (NDC) marked the second peaceful shift of power since Ghana transitioned to multi-party democracy in 1992. The NDC also gained a majority in the new parliament. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for abbreviation GH which stands for the nation of Ghana.
After the change of power, the Auditor General said that there was gross waste of public funds under the previous government. According to the report, the budget for celebrating 2007 was exceeded by the country’s 50th anniversary as an independent state by several hundred percent. The new government claimed that it had in principle taken over a bankruptcy estate. According to countryaah, President Atta Mills promised to cut down on all luxury consumption within the government administration.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) granted Ghana a three-year loan of US $ 600 million and also approved that the country withdraws up to US $ 450 million from the currency basket fund of so-called special drawing rights to which a large number of countries have contributed, and which has been extended by the major industrial countries in G20 cooperation to alleviate the impact of the global economic crisis on poor countries. The IMF considered that Ghana, as a major cocoa producer and major gold exporter, has great opportunities for relatively rapid economic recovery.
The creation of a presidential guard (trained by the Soviets) – in clear opposition to the army, with which Nkrumah already had difficult relations – precipitated a situation which had already deteriorated due to serious economic difficulties (mainly resulting from the crisis in the world price of cocoa and corruption of many political and bureaucratic leaders) and for authoritarian excesses: on February 24, 1966 the army (led by Col. EK Kotoka and Maj. AA Afrifa) and the police (led by Inspector JWK Harlley) took power, dismissed Nkrumah, who was visiting Beijing, suspended the constitution, banned the CPP and set up a National Liberation Council (NLC), made up of four army officers and the same number of police, chaired by gen. RA Ankrah. The NLC, assisted by some advisory committees, he faced the difficult economic situation with deflationary measures, which nevertheless led to an increase in unemployment, and at the same time started the study of reforms for the return to constitutional normality (a revolutionary attempt by a group of officers, in April 1967, was crushed after an initial success; Col. Kotoka was killed there). In foreign policy, the NLC, in contrast to Nkrumah’s policy, forged ties with Western countries (from which it had substantial aid) and with those of Commonwealth, while it severed relations with China (October 1966) and argued with the Soviet Union (while continuing to receive aid); relations with neighboring countries improved, but those with Guinea deteriorated (arrest, in October 1966, of Guinean diplomats), which hosted the deposed Nkrumah.
The approach of the political revival, scheduled for 1969, aroused some conflict among the leaders of the NLC, who also represented different ethnic groups and economic interests (in April 1969 Ankrah was replaced by AA Afrifa in the presidency of the NLC). Legally readmitted from 1 May 1969, numerous parties were reconstituted, including the Progress party of K. Busia and the National alliance of liberals led by Gbedemah. The popular consultation of 29 August approved the constitution of the Second Republic (which provided for the division of powers and excluded the single party) and elected the new assembly: 105 members of the Progress party and 34 of the National alliance. K. Busia formed the new government while the presidency, once the military triumvirate (Afrifa, Ocran, Harlley) ceased, was assumed by E. Akufo Addo. Faced with economic difficulties and consequent unemployment, the government sought a remedy in the expulsion of foreign workers, in reductions in bureaucracy and in other measures opposed by the unions; the opposition, on the other hand, coalesced in the Justice party, led by E. Madjitey; in July 1971 a very austere budget forecast was adopted, involving reductions and unpopular taxes; in September the trade unions were abolished. which involved reductions and unpopular taxes; in September the trade unions were abolished. which involved reductions and unpopular taxes; in September the trade unions were abolished.
But in mid-January 1972 a new military coup d’etat interprets the general discontent: Col. IK Acheampong assumes power (while Busia is in London), dismisses the head of state and forms a National Redemption Council) with representatives of the armed forces and the police. The NRC – in favor of which the trade union forces and the Justice party are speaking – initiates investigations on the exponents of the civil regime and restores the privileges of the bureaucracy and the military; while it ignores some of Nkrumah’s international debts (reason of friction especially with Great Britain), it launches a policy of self-sufficiency, especially in the food sector, and of increasing local production. After the death of Nkrumah (in Romania, on April 27, 1972) – whose body the NRC requested, which was buried in his native country – some aspects of his policy seem to be relevant again, especially in the international field: Ghana it reaffirms pan-African solidarity and reactivates commercial exchanges and collaboration agreements with socialist countries (especially with China, in the agricultural field). In January 1973 in the “Charter of Redemption” the principles of discipline and sacrifice to which the government refers, which acquired a majority stake in gold and diamond mining activities (other nationalizations during 1974) were sanctioned. Some success seems to have been achieved (the 1973 trade balance closes in surplus but the oil crisis nullifies the result); however serious dissensions remain (in July 1972 and in the following August there were attempts of coup d’état). Despite the difficulties, the NRC maintains power by securing the support of the army and the bureaucracy, to which it grants increases, partially accepting union requests, issuing some measures in favor of cocoa farmers (whose incomes are decreasing), repressing dissent (university closure following demonstrations). In October 1975 the The NRC’s National Executive Council was replaced by a 7-member Supreme Military Council, chaired by Acheampong (general, since March 1976).