Tanzania. According to
countryaah, authorities apparently made half-hearted
attempts to curb the wave of murders of people with pigment
deficiencies, albinos, which have been going on since 2007
and claimed at least 40 people's lives. In January, the
government revoked the licenses for traditional healers, who
were suspected of using the decoctions on albinos' body
parts which, according to popular belief, are in luck. But
the business continued to about the same extent without
reckoning. In the city of Shinyanga in northwestern
Tanzania, trials were carried out during the year against
seven people charged with the murder of albinos. All seven
were found guilty and sentenced to death.
Public confidence in the judiciary also became a thorn
when eight policemen, accused of shooting four innocent
people, were acquitted in the absence of evidence. Police
said the four had robbed a bank and were killed in a fire.
But an investigation had found that they had not
participated in the robbery and that no fighting had ever
In local elections throughout the country in October, the
ruling party Chama Cha Mapinduzi (Revolutionary Party, CCM)
prevailed. The party's candidates for village leaders and
municipal representatives received a total of 93.7 percent
of the vote.
1991 Multiparty system
In the early 1990s, Julius Nyerere abandoned the
opposition to a multi-party system. According to the former
president, the absence of a political opposition had meant
that the CCM government had removed itself from its program
and social responsibility to develop into a political caste
isolated from the people. Under the leadership of Abdullah
Fundikira, in February 91, a commission was set up to plan
the change of Tanzania's political system.
In its 1991 report, Amnesty International pointed to the
presence of 120 prisoners on the island of Zanzibar, of
which at least 40 were political. The Mwinyi government
denied political arrests and invited the human rights
organization to investigate the case on the spot.
In March of that year, the Organization of Tanzanian
Workers (JUWATA) terminated its organic affiliation with CCM.
In December, opposition leader Oscar Kambona announced his
plans to return to Tanzania after 23 years of exile in
England, with the aim of leading the fight for a multi-party
system. He also informed about the formation of the
Tanzanian Democratic Alliance Party. But the April 93
election once again emphasized the ruling CCM's leading role
in political life, as it gained 89% of the votes cast
against the other parties' 11%.
Yet, the country's serious socio-economic situation led
to increasing resistance. The country's foreign debt stood
at $ 6.5 billion in 91, or 26% of its export revenue. In
1993-94 it received a total of DKK 1.2 billion in aid.
dollars from the western countries, but the fundamental
problem remained unchanged - the rising current account
deficit. The IMF and the World Bank had forced the country
to open up for rising imports, reaching 93 billion in 1993.
exports fell to $ 370 million. - especially due to falling
world market prices for cotton.
The government entered into a new agreement with the IMF
on the implementation of an even tighter structural
adjustment program, which would result in the firing of
20,000 public servants and the reduction of the budget
deficit. To implement this, the cost of tuition was further
cut. By 1960, these expenditures had made up 30% of public
spending. In 94 they reached 5%. At the same time,
electricity prices were increased by 68% and various local
taxes were increased by 233%.
In March, the World Bank praised Tanzania's economic
policies and characterized the country as its second-best
student in Africa - after Ghana. However, the country's
serious social situation was further exacerbated by the
massive influx of refugees from neighboring Rwanda following
the massacre of over half a million people.
The year 95 was marked by the parliamentary and
presidential elections in October, which CCM once again won
- thanks to the support of Nyerere. Benjamin Mkapa was
elected new president and he appointed Frederick Sumaye as