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Yearbook 2009

Somalia. When the outside world thought that the situation in Somalia was as bad as it could be, things got even worse in 2009. According to countryaah, the Ethiopian forces that invaded the country in December 2006 returned home in January, having failed to secure control of the Somali government. The Ethiopian gaps were immediately filled by Islamist militia, mainly among them al-Shabab with suspected ties to al-Qaeda. Several cities were taken over by al-Shabab, who also gained a foothold in the capital Mogadishu. A moderate Islamist faction led by Sharif Sheik Ahmed, after brief negotiations concluded peace with the government, after which members of his group were allocated seats in parliament, who then elected him president. The post of formal head of state had been vacant since shortly before the turn of the year. Ahmed appointed new Prime Minister Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, son of Somalia's last elected president, assassinated in 1969. The new government's offer to al-Shabab for peace was rejected and fierce fighting broke out in Mogadishu and other cities. The government's decision to introduce Islamic law, Sharia, did not appease the Islamists either.

2009 Somalia

Continued fighting in the spring, which especially in Mogadishu demanded the lives of many civilians, drove tens of thousands of people to flight. They joined the hundreds of thousands who previously lived in miserable conditions in tent camps. In addition, Somalia was affected by what was said to be the worst drought in many years. The humanitarian crisis in the country was now described as the worst in the world. After Mogadishu's police chief, the security minister and another prominent politician were murdered in the course of three days, so many MPs fled abroad that the assembly was no longer resolute. The government announced a state of emergency and desperately appealed for foreign military intervention. However, no country was officially rescued, although there were reports that small Ethiopian allies had returned to Somalia. The United States sent weapons and ammunition, and a strengthened government army was able to recover some lost land from the Islamists during the autumn. In addition, there were signs of a split between the most fierce Islamist militia, which in October was reported to be fighting battles over control of the important port city of Kismaayo.

In early December, about twenty people were killed in a suicide attack, attributed to al-Shabab, against a hotel in Mogadishu. Three of those killed were ministers. The perpetrator turned out to be a Danish of Somali birth who recently returned to Somalia after living almost his entire life in Denmark. It was also revealed during the year that al-Shabab successfully recruited members among young men of mostly Somali birth in Stockholm. "A handful" of people with a Swedish passport were killed in fighting, according to SÄPO.

During the first half of the year, piracy operations off the coast of northern Somalia increased dramatically and a large number of vessels were hijacked. Three Swedish warships with a total of more than 150 crew members were included in the EU force for four months, patrolling the waters, primarily to escort UN vessels delivering relief aid to the refugees.


Mogadishu, Muqdisho, the capital of Somalia in northeastern Africa; 1.28 million inb (2015). The town is built on three hill ridges of sand dunes. The climate is dry and very hot with seasonally changing winds from land and from the sea; the intermediate periods are experienced as extremely hot. The rainfall is small and unstable with usually two rainy seasons: gu in April-May and dayr in September-November.

With its location on the coast of the Indian Ocean, Mogadishu was already in the 900-t. known as the hub of trade between the Far East, Arabia and Abyssinia (Ethiopia). It was one of the earliest Arab settlements on the East African coast. Hides, skins and resins from selected trees were essential commodities from the nomads of the hinterland. Near the coast in the central part of the city lies the oldest district with Arab-style houses, carved wooden doors and Arabic embossed markets. Arbaha Rakun, one of the city's oldest mosques, dates from 1300-t.

In the 1500-h. the Arab trade disappeared and Portuguese traders began to emerge. In 1870, the coastal area was controlled by the Sultan of Zanzibar, who built the barracks for his troops. This building is now a museum. In 1892 the port was leased to the Italians and Mogadishu became the capital of Italian Somaliland. The Christian Cathedral was inaugurated in 1929, and a Roman triumphal arch was built. Italian urban planning made its mark on the main streets. Hotel Croce del Süd is a piece of vibrant Italian culture. The University (1954) is located in the northern part of the city.

1960 Mogadishu became the capital of independent Somalia. Among the country's many clans, hawiye is the most important in the city, but the capital also has members of other Somali clans, including Darod. During the 1990's, the Somali civil war became increasingly fierce and there were many battles in Mogadishu. In August 1992, 3,000 UN troops landed in an operation that developed into a massive failure. The settlement, which was especially true of two rival hawaii-groups, continued to escalate, and very large parts of the city were destroyed. During the course, many thousands of the city's residents fled to, among other things. the country's more peaceful northeastern parts. After the UN forces left the city in 1995, power completely passed on to local warlords, who divided the city between themselves and often fought among themselves. In parts of the city, Islamic courts with their own militias took control and introduced Islamic law. In 2001 and 2002, the country's transitional government tried to dissolve the private armies and Islamic militias and integrate them into the country's military and police, but without success. Neither did the new transitional government set up in 2004 have managed to create so much security in the city that it could move the government to the capital. In June 2006, a militia led by the Union of Islamic Courts gained control of the war-torn city, but soon lost it again. Mogadishu continues to be plagued by riots and violence with several suicide attacks. Nevertheless, the reconstruction of the city is underway.


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