Czech Republic. According to
countryaah, the country's troubled domestic policy
had consequences for the EU during the year. The country
took over as president of the Union at the New Year, when
the government was weakened by the electoral defeat in the
regions and divided in the view of the EU. In addition,
President Václav Klaus was an outspoken opponent of the new
EU Treaty, the so-called Lisbon Treaty. The government was
reshaped in January, when the Christian Democrats' mutilated
leaders left the coalition and three more ministers left.
Among them was the Minister of Health, who received harsh
criticism for the introduction of patient fees for doctor's
visits. The Chamber of Deputies approved the Lisbon Treaty
in February, but then again stood the Senate's vote and the
In March, Mirek Topolánek's bourgeois coalition was
defeated by the left opposition and independent members in a
vote of no confidence in Parliament. Thus, the EU Presidency
was without a regular government. In May, the Czech Republic
was given a transitional government led by economic expert
Jan Fischer, who like many of the ministers was partyless.
However, Fischer's and a few other new ministers' past in
the old Czechoslovak Communist Party sparked debate.
The Senate approved the EU's Lisbon Treaty in May, but
President Klaus declared that he would wait to sign the
treaty until Ireland held its new referendum. The new
government under Fischer struggled with cuts to try to
reduce the budget deficit from 7.5 to 5.2 percent. Following
a threat of resignation, Fischer was approved in Parliament
in September for the planned austerity and tax increases.
New elections had been announced until October but were
postponed indefinitely following a decision in the
Constitutional Court. A settlement between the parties to
place the elections in November was halted by the left
parties, which according to critics would benefit from a
later election if the financial difficulties continued.
When the Irish people voted in favor of the EU's Lisbon
Treaty in October, Czech President Klaus still refused to
sign it. Furthermore, a number of Czech senators asked the
country's constitutional court to re-examine whether the
EU's new treaty violated the Czech Constitution. President
Klaus also requested that the Treaty be exempted by
guaranteeing that confiscated property could not be
recovered by Germans expelled from Czechoslovakia after the
Second World War. The Swedish EU President Fredrik Reinfeldt
was dismissive. Prime Minister Fischer tried to mediate
between his own president and the Union, and at an EU summit
in late October, the Czech Republic got its exception. When
the Constitutional Court declared that the Lisbon Treaty did
not violate the Czech Constitution,
The US announced in the fall that plans for an American
robotic shield in the Czech Republic and Poland were
scrapped in favor of a mobile missile defense. The country's
president Klaus explained that the message did not impair
the country's relations with the United States.
Prague, earliest mentioned 928, arose at a wad (Czech prah ) over
Vltava by a number of smaller communities around, among other things. the
strongholds of Vyšehrad and Hradčany on both sides of the river were merged.
Hradčany, located high on the left side of the river (Malá Strana), was expanded
in the 13th century to the residence of the Bohemian kings. In 973, Prague
became the bishop's seat, and a precursor to the present St. Veitsdom was
erected next to Hradčany. Opposite the right bank was another community, Staré
Město, which grew among other things. by immigration of German, French and
Jewish merchants and craftsmen.
During Charles IV, King of Bohemia 1347–78 and German-Roman Emperor 1355–78,
Prague experienced a prosperous period, when a new district, Nové Město, was
built south of Staré Město and the city under the influence of French building
art received its present Gothic touch. In 1344, Prague had become the
archdiocese, and in 1348 Charles IV had the first German university built north
of the Alps. There, Jan Hus worked, and there in 1419 the first defenestration
in Prague triggered the devastating Hushite war devastating the city of Prague.
The German-Czech contradiction which was a motive in these had already in 1409
led the German professors and students to leave the university and took refuge
By the second defense of Prague in 1618, the Thirty Years War was triggered,
which hit Prague hard by looting and destruction. A Swedish army conquered Malá
Strana and Hradčany in 1648 and carried away valuable art treasures, among other
things. Codex argenteus (Silver Bible) and Devil's Bible. During the
19th century Prague became thanks to nearby coal and iron ore deposits and the
railway to Vienna (1845) the industrial hub of Bohemia. In 1848, Prague became
the center of the failed Czech Revolution (compare the February Revolution ).
Prague became the capital of Czechoslovakia in 1918 and has also lately been
the scene of crucial events in the country's history such as the Prague Cup in
1948, the Prague Spring 1968 and the transition to democracy 1989-90. Prague has
been the capital of the Czech Republic since 1993.
In Prague, on May 30, 1635, a peace treaty was signed between Emperor
Ferdinand II and Elector Johan Georg I of Saxony with the aim of restoring
national peace and, in an emergency with arms power, forcing the Swedish and
French occupation troops to leave Germany. For this purpose, a national army
under imperial command would be organized. Peace was supported by most German
Protestant states, including Brandenburg. Sweden's position weakened, and a new
stage in the thirty-year war, the French-Swedish, began.
On August 23, 1866, a peace treaty was concluded in Prague between Prussia
and Austria, whereby Austria accepted the dissolution of the German
Confederation and the new order which Prussia intended to implement north of
Main. Furthermore, Prussia Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg, which together
with Austria was conquered from Denmark in 1864. were granted the Treaty, which
stipulated that Northern Schleswig would be united with Denmark if a majority of
the population in a forthcoming referendum so desired. However, such a thing
never came to fruition.
Prague was occupied by German troops in March 1939. Between October 6, 1941
and March 16, 1945, over 46,000 of Prague's Jews were deported to tillódź, Minsk
and Theresienstadt; About 11,000 Jews survived the war in Prague. Struggles were
fought in the city in May 1945, but it escaped as one of the few major cities in
Central Europe of widespread destruction during World War II.